Medical Textiles | Application Field of Medical Textiles
Medical is a science which is related to the science or practice of medicine. Textile is clothing which is deal with dyeing , printing, apparel and any other industrial uses. And the textile medical is the new field which is combination of textile technology and medical science.
Medical textile defined as “ Fiber-based products and structures used in first aid or clinical treatment of a wound or medical condition.”
David Rigby Associates, the medtech application are “ Embraces all those technical textiles used in health and hygiene application.”
History of Medical Textiles:-
The history of medical textiles began with the development of wound closures and sutures thousands of years. The origin of surgery led to the development of wound closures during 5000-3000BC. The wound closures were particularly made of natural materials such as flax,silk,linen strips and cotton. In order to reduce tissue drag and ensure a clean wound closure procedure , the natural materials used were first lubricated in oil and wine. Mandibles soldier ants were also used to make wound closures. In 30 AD, the roman celsus describe the use of sutures and clips, while Galen described the use of silk and catgut in 150AD. Suture material made from flax, hemp and hair were described by Indian plastic surgeon Susruta. Surgical and suture technique finally evolved in the 1800s with the development of sterilization procedures.
Material Characteristics for Medical Textiles:-
- Optimum fatigue edurance
- Flame proof
- Non-allergenic Respond
- Mechanical Properties
Application Field of Medical Textiles :-
Healthcare and medical textiles are found in a wide variety of applications.
A non-exhaustive list of these is given here:-
- Antiseptic Wound treatment
- Compression therapy
- Coating and laminating
- Hygiene products
- Protective and healthcare textiles
- Heart treatment
- Kidney treatment(Artificial kidney, Hallow viscose, Hallow polyester)
- Skin grafts
- Vascular grafts
- Liver treatment( Artificial liver, Hallow Viscose)
- Mechanical lung( Hallow polypropylene fiber, hallow silicone membrane)
Problems identification in application field:-
- Identification of disease and which textiles is useful for this disease
- Skillness about using these fabric or textile material
- Technical knowledge about this sector
- Capacity of analysis
- Specialist in medicine and surgical.
Fibers in Medical Field :
- Natural Fiber:- Cotton, Wool And Silk
- Synthetic Fiber:- Polyester, Polyamide, Glass Fiber, Carbon , Polyetetrafluoroethylen , Polypropylene, PVT Fiber etc.
Classification of Medical Textiles:-
The textiles used in medical and surgical purposes can be classified as follows:-
(A) Non-Implantable Materials:-
- Wound-dressing, related hydrogel ,nonwoven/knitted/embroidery-based composite products.
- Bandages: Simple, Light support, Compression, Orthopedic bandages etc.
Chart of the product and fiber type are given below:-
|Product application||Fiber type||Manufacture system|
|1. Wound Care|
|Absorbent Pad||Cotton, viscose||Non-woven|
|Wound Contact Layer||Silk,polyamide,Viscose||Woven,non-woven,knitted|
|Base Layer||Viscose, Plastic Flim||Woven, Non-woven|
|Simple elastic /inelastic||Cotton,Viscose,Polyamide||Woven,Non-woven,Knitted|
|Light Support||Elastomeric yarn, Viscose||Woven, Non-woven, Knitted|
|3.Plaster||Viscose,Plastic Flim,Glass etc||Woven, Non-woven,knitted|
(B) Implantable Materials:-
- Vascular grafts: (fabricated by knitting, nonwoven, electrospinning)
- Sutures: (mono/multifilament, braided)
- Heart valves :(knitting)
(C) Extracorporeal Devices:-
It is one kind of tissues engineered products. These are given below:-
- Cartilage (nonwoven, 3D weaving)
- Skin (nonwoven, knitting, weaving)
- Liver (Rapid prototyping)
- Kidney, Urinary bladder (nonwoven, 3D weaving)
- Tendons, Ligaments (mono/multi-filaments, braiding)
- Cornea (Electrospinning, knitting, hydrogel-based composite)
(D) Healthcare/Hygienic Products:-
- Surgical gowns, Masks, Wipes.
- Specially designed bed sheets for critically ill patients.
- Antibacterial, Antiviral Textiles.
- Insecticidal textiles for controlling infectious diseases (smart mosquito net).
- Super absorbent polymers.
- Dialysis membrane, Hernia mesh.
- Adhesive, anti-adhesive patches for Post operative surgical application.
- Soluble factor release (Drug, Hormone, Growth factor Delivery), Enzyme (Matrix metalloprotease, proteases etc) attachment on fibrous materials.
- Stimuli-sensitive and injectable hydro gels, phage change materials.
Production Process of Medical Textile:-
The production process of medical textile is given below:-
Fig:- Flowchart Of Medical Textile Product
Medical textile in Bangladesh:-
There will be a huge need of medical textiles in the near future. There is no research work about the market size of medical textile in Bangladesh. For this we have not found sufficient data about the market size of Bangladesh. By investigating hospitals and market we have reached a decision that the market size of medical textile is increasing rapidly. The main causes are the following –
- Population growth
- Consciousness development of people about health care
- Higher standard of living
- Establishment of international standard modern hospitals throughout the country
- Technology development
The importance of medical textile for the healthier life and betterment of human being is great. The development of new technologies and new item will help the patients to overcome their suffering in previous days.